The Application Server handles the LoRaWAN® application layer, including uplink data decryption and decoding, downlink queuing and downlink data encoding and encryption.
It hosts an MQTT server for streaming application data, supports HTTP webhooks as well as pub/sub integrations.
The Console is the management application of The Things Stack for LoRaWAN. It is a web application which can be used to register applications, end devices or gateways, monitor network traffic, or configure network related options, among other things. The Console uses an OAuth access token to communicate with The Things Stack.
The Gateway Server maintains connections with gateways supporting the Basic Station, UDP, MQTT and gRPC protocols. It forwards uplink traffic to Network Servers directly or indirectly, and schedules downlink traffic on gateways.
The Identity Server provides the registries that store entities such as applications with their end devices, gateways, users, organizations, OAuth clients and authentication providers. It also manages access control through memberships and API keys.
The Network Operations Center provides aggregated insight in a network operated with The Things Stack.
The Network Operations Center stores events from The Things Stack in a time series database, queries aggregated data and visualizes data in a dashboard driven by Grafana. The Network Operations Center is complementary to the Console: the Network Operations Center shows historic data (with a delay of at most 5 minutes), while the Console shows live information and allows for managing the network.